Recently while trying to run Windows Update on one of my Windows 2008 R2 Domain Controllers I received error 0x80240030 when either trying to install the updates it said were available or trying to check for updates.
It looks like some how my Internet Explorer Proxy settings got buggered (We don’t use a proxy on our servers) and were in some strange state. I went into ‘Internet Options’ and enabled ‘Automatically Detect Settings’ and click ‘Ok’ and ‘Apply’ all the way out, then went back in and unchecked it again.
That was it. Problem resolved. Windows Update is working properly again.